In 1992, President George H.W. Bush joined 107 other heads of state at the Rio Earth Summit in Brazil to adopt a series of environmental agreements, including the UNFCCC framework, which is still in force today. The international treaty aims to prevent dangerous human intervention in the planet`s climate systems in the long term. The pact does not set limits on greenhouse gas emissions from individual countries and does not contain enforcement mechanisms, but establishes a framework for international negotiations on future agreements or protocols to set binding emissions targets. Participating countries meet annually at a Conference of the Parties (COP) to assess their progress and continue discussions on how best to combat climate change. A “national communication” is a kind of report presented by countries that have ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).  Developed countries are required to submit national submissions every four years and developing countries should do so.    Some least developed countries have not submitted national communications in the past 5-15 years, mainly due to capacity constraints. A preliminary inventory-impact study was published in Nature Communications in April 2020. Based on a public policy database and a multi-model scenario analysis, the authors showed that the implementation of current strategies by 2030 leaves an average emission gap of 22.4 to 28.2 GtCO2eq, with optimal means to achieve targets well below 2 degrees Celsius and 1.5 degrees Celsius. If national contributions were fully implemented, this gap would be reduced by one-third.
The countries assessed did not achieve their promised contributions with implemented measures (implementation deficit) or experienced a gap in ambition with optimal paths to well below 2oC. The study showed that all countries should accelerate the implementation of renewable technology strategies, while improving efficiency in emerging and fossil fuel-dependent countries is particularly important.  The Paris Agreement, as part of the Paris Agreement on Climate Change, also known as the Paris Climate Agreement or COP21, an international agreement, on behalf of the City of Paris, France, which adopted it in December 2015, which aimed to reduce gas emissions that contribute to global warming. The Paris agreement aimed to improve and replace the Kyoto Protocol, a previous international agreement to limit greenhouse gas emissions. It came into force on 4 November 2016 and was signed by 194 countries and ratified by 188 in November 2020. These rules of transparency and accountability are similar to those set out in other international agreements.